What we know about lung cancer is changing day by day. Lung cancer, which was considered as the only smoking-related disease in the past, is now considered a complex disease with different subtypes and multiple genetic mutations in its etiology.
Lung cancer is one of the most common solid organ tumors and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Approximately 1.8 million patients are diagnosed with lung cancer each year. (Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related deaths, responsible for 1 out of every 4 cancer-related deaths). When looking at these data, it is seen that every three minutes, one person is diagnosed with lung cancer, while another dies due to this disease.
Cancer in the lungs occurs when abnormal cells proliferate uncontrollably. Lung cancer often begins to develop from a single focus in a lung; however, it may also be caused by multiple focuses. Cancer cells can spread to the lungs, adjacent tissues, or other parts of the body. Lung cancer mostly metastasizes to lymph nodes, liver, central nervous system (brain), bones, and adrenal glands. Lung cancer can also metastasize to different lobes or to the other lung.
Basically, it can be classified into two groups as small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. The most common symptoms are persistent cough, weight loss, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, and chest pain.
- Occupational exposure (contact with asbestos)
- History of radiation contact
- Genetic predisposition
- Previous lung diseases
It is calculated that 80-90% of lung cancer mortality in men and 75-80% in women is caused by smoking. With 30 packs/year of smoking, the risk of death due to lung cancer increases 20-60 times in men and 14-20 times in women. Starting smoking before the age of 15 doubles the risk. The number of cigarettes smoked per day leads to a linear increase in risk. The prolongation of the smoking period leads to an exponential increase in risk.
Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted drug therapy, and/or palliative therapy can be applied alone or in combination in the treatment of lung cancer. Factors affecting the treatment decision are the stage of the disease, the patient's performance status, the histopathological type of the tumor, and the mutation analysis.
While lung cancer was a rare disease at the beginning of the century, it has become the most fatal type of cancer in the world today. As Roche Turkey, we have prepared two awareness campaigns for the Lung Cancer Awareness Month in 2018 and 2019 with the slogan of “Bak Ciğerim, Akciğerim” (My Dear Lung).
1- "Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment –Patient Version (PDQ®)". NCI. May 12, 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
2- Falk, S; Williams, C (2010). "Chapter 1". Lung Cancer—the facts (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 3–4.
3-Horn, L; Lovly, CM; Johnson, DH (2015). "Chapter 107: Neoplasms of the lung". In Kasper, DL; Hauser, SL; Jameson, JL; Fauci, AS; Longo, DL; Loscalzo, J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
4- California Environmental Protection Agency (1997). "Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. California Environmental Protection Agency". Tobacco Control 6 (4): 346–353.
5- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (December 2001). "State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults, and policies and attitudes about secondhand smoke—United States, 2000". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Atlanta, Georgia: CDC) 50 (49): 1101–1106.
6- Alberg, AJ; Samet JM (September 2007). "Epidemiology of lung cancer". Chest (American College of Chest Physicians)132 (S3): 29S–55S.
7- Taylor, R; Najafi F; Dobson A (October 2007). "Meta-analysis of studies of passive smoking and lung cancer: effects of study type and continent". International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (5): 1048–1059.
8-Schick, S; Glantz S (December 2005). "Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke". Tobacco Control 14 (6): 396–404.
9- O'Reilly, KM; Mclaughlin AM; Beckett WS; Sime PJ (March 2007). "Asbestos-related lung disease". American Family Physician 75 (5): 683–688.
10- Tobias, J; Hochhauser D (2010). "Chapter 12". Cancer and its Management (6th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 199.
11- Davies, RJO; Lee YCG (2010). "18.19.3". Oxford Textbook Medicine (5th ed.). OUP Oxford.
12- Collins, LG; Haines C; Perkel R; Enck RE (January 2007). "Lung cancer: diagnosis and management". American Family Physician (American Academy of Family Physicians) 75 (1): 56–63.
13- Miller, WT (2008). Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 486.
Lu C, Onn A, Vaporciyan AA, et al. (2010). "78: Cancer of the Lung". Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (8th ed.). People's Medical Publishing House.
14- Kumar, V; Abbas AK; Aster JC (2013). "12". Robbins Basic Pathology (9th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. p.
15- Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A, et al. (August 2010). "Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (8): 733–42.
16- Kelley AS, Meier DE (August 2010). "Palliative care--a shifting paradigm". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (8): 781–2.
17- Prince-Paul M (April 2009). "When hospice is the best option: an opportunity to redefine goals". Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 23 (4 Suppl Nurse Ed): 13–7.
18- Ferlay J, Shin H-R, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Erişim: http://globocan.iarc.fr last accessed: October 2011.
19- World Health Organization. Cancer. Fact Sheet No 297. February 2014.
21- National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. NCCN 2017 v3.
22- Morris S.W. , et al. ALK, the chromosome 2 gene locus altered by the t(2;5) in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, encodes a novel neural receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly related to leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) Oncogene, 14 (1997), pp. 2175–2188 Erratum in: Oncogene 1997;15:2883
23- Palmer R, et al. Biochem J. 2009 Jun 15; 420 (Pt3): 345-361
24- Soda M, Choi YL, Enomoto M, et al. Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC. Nature 2007;448:561-6
25- Soda M, Choi YL, Enomoto M, et al. Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC. Nature 2007;448:561-6
26- koski R, ALK: structure,oncogenic activation and pharmacological inhibition Pharmacol Res. 2013 Feb; 68(1): 68-94
27- Lindeman, et al. Molecular testing guideline for selection of lung cancer patients for EGFR and ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors: guideline from the College of American Pathologists, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Association for Molecular Pathology. J Thorac Oncol 2013Jul; 8(7):823-59
28- Gridelli, et al. ALK inhibitors in the treatment of advanced NSCLC Cancer Treat Rev. 2014; Mar; 40(2):300-6
29- Bauml, et al. Determinants of Survival in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in the Era of Targeted Therapies Clin Lung Cancer 2013 Sep; 14(5): 581–591.