Colorectal cancers are the most common of all gastrointestinal system cancers. They include cancers in the colon, rectum, cecum, appendix, and anal area. Each year, 1,000,000 new cases are diagnosed around the world. It ranks 4th among cancers diagnosed in the USA (10-15% of all cancers are colorectal). Blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, weight loss, and feeling of tiredness are symptoms that indicate colon cancer. Advanced age, being a male, diet, genetics, intestinal diseases, smoking, alcohol, chemical carcinogens are risk factors for colon cancer.

 

TREATMENT

Colon cancer treatment varies depending on the stage of the disease. Surgical treatment, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the basic therapies. Early-stage operations are resection of polyps during colonoscopy, endoscopic mucosal resection, and minimally invasive surgery. The operations performed for invasive colon cancer are partial colectomy and lymph node resection. Different surgical techniques can be applied for later stages. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted drug therapy are methods used in the treatment of colon cancer.

 

REFERENCES

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7- "Screening for Colorectal Cancer". U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. October 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2014.

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12- AskMayoExpert. Colon cancer (surgical management). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.

13- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Colorectal cancer. In: Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 27, 2016.

14- Colon cancer. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Jan. 27, 2016.

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