Colorectal cancers are the most common of all gastrointestinal system cancers. They include cancers in the colon, rectum, cecum, appendix, and anal area. Each year, 1,000,000 new cases are diagnosed around the world. It ranks 4th among cancers diagnosed in the USA (10-15% of all cancers are colorectal). Blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, weight loss, and feeling of tiredness are symptoms that indicate colon cancer. Advanced age, being a male, diet, genetics, intestinal diseases, smoking, alcohol, chemical carcinogens are risk factors for colon cancer.
Colon cancer treatment varies depending on the stage of the disease. Surgical treatment, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the basic therapies. Early-stage operations are resection of polyps during colonoscopy, endoscopic mucosal resection, and minimally invasive surgery. The operations performed for invasive colon cancer are partial colectomy and lymph node resection. Different surgical techniques can be applied for later stages. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted drug therapy are methods used in the treatment of colon cancer.
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