Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

The average age for the onset of Multiple Sclerosis, which is twice as common in women, is between 20 and 40 years.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. In MS, malfunctioning immune system cells cause damage to the nerve sheaths of cells (neurons) in the brain and spinal cord. As a result, neurons are unable to function properly. MS is the most common cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Once the clinical threshold of irreversible disability is reached, it may be too late to benefit from treatment. Early treatment can reverse some of the effects of early axon dysfunction.

MS is a complex disease and many risk factors have been identified. Environmental factors such as geographical factors, low vitamin D levels and smoking; genetic factors such as female gender, ethnicity and family history; and viruses such as EBV and HHV-6 can cause the disease.

Visual impairment occurs in the majority of MS patients, and optic neuritis is the first symptom in many patients. A low contrast visual acuity test, it is investigated how well the patients can distinguish objects in front of a flat or shaded background of a similar color. At certain contrast levels, the size at which they can read progressively smaller letters is assessed. The findings of Multiple Sclerosis and the place of involvement in the nervous system vary from person to person. These symptoms are:

  • Ataxia : Impaired movement coordination,

  • Babinski sign: Extension of toes when the soles of the feet are stimulated with an object

  • Blurred or double vision, nystagmus,

  • Clonus: A condition characterized by involuntary contraction and relaxation movements that occur one after the other in a particular muscle or muscle group.

  • Dysarthria,

  • The ability to quickly swing between moods,

  • Fatigue,

  • Paralysis characterized by muscle dysfunction due to nerve damage in the hand,

  • Hemiparesis,

  • Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes (such as the knee-jerk reflex),

  • Paresthesia: Loss of sensation, numbness and tingling sensation,

  • Thamuria and urinary incontinence,

  • Impotence in men,

  • Incoordination (coordination disorder),

  • Monoparesis: Paralysis involving only one arm or one leg,

  • Imbalance and dizziness

Although there is no definitive cure for MS, treatments are mostly used to slow the progression of the disease, prevent attacks and reduce symptoms. Corticosteroids or plasmapheresis are used to treat MS attacks. Physical therapy and muscle relaxants can be used to reduce signs and symptoms. Treatments are usually aimed at preventing the progression of the disease.

Current medicines used to treat MS:

  • Steroids (control of relapses)

  • Plasmapheresis (control of relapses)

  • Disease modifying treatments (DMTs)

Thecreated by Roche Pharmaceuticals Türkiye in collaboration with Turkish MS Society, Black Sea Region MS Society, İzmir MS Society and Adana MS Society, focuses on unmet needs of MS patients in Türkiye. The platform, which addresses the misconceptions about MS disease, offers uptodate content that patients and their relatives can follow on a regular basis.

End-to-end digital disease management and telehealth application MS+ was developed in cooperation with Albert Health and MS Society of Turkey and was sponsored by Roche Turkey. This pioneering and innovative application aims to follow-up patient data and to improve the management of the disease by sharing the data with physicians with patient consent.

Please visit the link to download the app;


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  2. What is a Neurologist_ - Neurology - Highland Hospital - University of Rochester Medical Center 08.06.2023.

  3. Thau L, et al. Anatomy, Central Nervous System - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf. Last Update October 10, 2022.

  4. Overview of Nervous System Disorders Johns Hopkins Medicine 08.06.202.

  5. Multiple Sclerosis National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 09.06.2023.

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The information provided on this site is not for diagnostic or medical advice, but for informational purposes. If you have or think you have a disease to be treated, consult a specialist physician.

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