Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune, chronic, progressive, systemic disease that mainly affects the joints. It typically causes heat rise, swelling, and pain in the joints. It also affects other organs in the body, and as a result, it can cause low red blood cell count, lung inflammation, and heart inflammation. It is one of the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases in the world and is more common in women between the ages of 20-50.

The immune system of the individuals who genetically susceptible to RA development and autoimmunity may be triggered as a result of exposure to smoking, bacteria, viruses, and other environmental components.



Findings and Symptoms

Fever, sweating, weakness, and weight loss are the initial symptoms. Joint findings are polyarticular, symmetrical, and deforming. Pain, morning stiffness, swelling, temperature increase, and loss of function occur in the joints, with no rash. Finger joints, wrists, elbows, knees, shoulders, and hips are the most commonly affected areas. Buttonhole Deformity, Ulnar Deviation, and Swan Neck Deformity may occur in the hands in the late stages. Small pieces called rheumatoid nodules may form under the skin, near the affected joint. These pieces can be the size of a pea or a walnut. Other findings are vasculitis, pericarditis, Sjögren's syndrome, uveitis, anemia, and amyloidosis.

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to reduce pain, suppress inflammation, slow down or stop joint damage, and improve well-being and function. Non-Steroid Anti-inflammatories, glucocorticoids, synthetic and biological DMARDs can be used in the treatment.

 

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