Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disease in which inflammation is observed in the brain and spinal cord. In MS, malfunctioning immune system cells cause damage to the nerve sheaths of cells (neurons) in the brain and spinal cord. As a result, neurons are unable to function properly. The most common cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults is MS. The average age of onset is between 20 and 40 years. It is two times more common in women than in men. Once the irreversible disability reaches the clinical threshold, it may be late to benefit from treatment. Early treatment may reverse some of the effects of early axon dysfunction.


MS is a very complex disease and many risk factors have been identified. Geographic factors, low levels of vitamin D, environmental factors such as smoking, genetic causes such as gender, ethnicity, and family history, viruses such as EBV and HHV-6 can cause MS.

Findings and Symptoms

Visual dysfunction occurs in the majority of MS patients, and optic neuritis is the first symptom in many patients. In the low contrast visual acuity test, it is investigated how well the patients can distinguish objects in front of a flat or shaded background of a similar color. At certain contrast levels, the extent to which they can read letters that get smaller and smaller is evaluated. The findings of Multiple Sclerosis and the place of involvement in the nervous system vary from person to person. Therefore, many different symptoms can be observed in patients. These symptoms are:

 • Ataxia

• Babinski sign: Extension of toes when the soles of the feet are stimulated with an object

• Blurred or double vision, nystagmus

• Clonus: A condition characterized by involuntary contraction and relaxation movements that occur one after the other in a particular muscle or muscle group.

• Inaptitude

• Dysarthria

• The ability to quickly swing between moods,

• Fatigue,

• Paralysis characterized by muscle dysfunction due to nerve damage in the hand,

• Hemiparesis,

• Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes (such as the knee-jerk reflex),

• Paresthesia: Loss of sensation, numbness and tingling sensation,

• Thamuria and urinary incontinence,

•  Impotence in men,

•  Incoordination (coordination disorder),

• Monoparesis: Paralysis involving only one arm or one leg,

• Imbalance and dizziness


While there is no definitive cure for MS, treatments are mostly applied to slow down the progression of the disease, prevent attacks, and reduce symptoms. Corticosteroids or plasmapheresis are used to treat MS attacks. Physical therapy and muscle relaxants can be used to reduce signs and symptoms. The aim of the treatments is to prevent the progression of the disease.


For more information about MS, you can review the MS platform.



1- "NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page".National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. November 19, 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
 Compston A, Coles A (October 2008). "Multiple sclerosis". Lancet 372 (9648): 1502–17.

3- Compston A, Coles A (April 2002). "Multiple sclerosis". Lancet 359 (9313): 1221–31.

4- Murray ED, Buttner EA, Price BH (2012). "Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice". In Daroff R, Fenichel G, Jankovic J, Mazziotta J. Bradley's neurology in clinical practice.(6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders.

5- Lublin FD, Reingold SC (April 1996). "Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey". Neurology 46 (4): 907–11.

6- Kurtzke JF. J Neurovirol 2000;6(suppl 2):S134–S140

7- Munger KL, et al. JAMA 2006;296(23):2832–2838

8- Handel AE, et al. PLoS One 2011;6(1):e16149

9- Ramagopalan SV, et al. Lancet Neurol 2010;9(7):727–739

10- Robertson NP, et al. Brain 1996;119(Pt 2):449–555

11- Ascherio A, Munger KL. Ann Neurol 2007;61(4):288–299

12- Alenda R, et alEur J Neurol. 2014;21(8):1096–1101

13- Burton JM, O'Connor PW, Hohol M, Beyene J (12 December 2012). "Oral versus intravenous steroids for treatment of relapses in multiple sclerosis.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 12: CD006921.

14- The National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (2004). Multiple sclerosis : national clinical guideline for diagnosis and management in primary and secondary care(pdf). London: Royal College of Physicians. pp. 54–57.